Describe the rise of conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon


Nixon Campaign – what was his strategy to win

Nixon used a strategy called the Southern Strategy which was based on the exploitation and appeal to racism against African Americans in order to gain the southern, white, Republican vote.


I will always remember how Nixon used racism to gain the white vote in the south. It is horrible how one can actually manage to appeal to a group based on the discrimination of another and manage to win the Presidency this way. This applies today as many groups, including political ones, gain support based on the bias and exploitation of another.




Explain the importance of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the Creation of the EPA and modern day environmental policy


Rachel Carson –  who was she, what was her book, Silent Spring about, how did it prompt legislative action – explain Earth Day

Rachel Carson was an author, ecologist, scientist and in 1962, she wrote a book called Silent Spring. The book was about her challenging agricultural scientists practices and the government. She did this in order to try and change the way people viewed the natural world. In 1963, she testified in front of Congress to call for new policies that protected human health and the environment. This eventually led to Earth Day, where students and other people go out and become educated about the planet and how to protect it.

NEPA – what was NEPA, what does the EPA set out to do

NEPA or National Environmental Policy Act was enacted in order to protect the balance and encourage safe productivity between person and environment. The EPA or Evironmental Protection agency tries to create ways to enact NEPA and put it into action in order to create and healthy environment for the people and the planet.

Major environmental policies that EPA is in charge of now

The EPA is now greatly involved and in charge of air quality, energy efficiency, ecological processes/impacts, pollution protection, special appropriation grants, and many more. The EPA is in charge of mostly all of the ways that we keep our planet clean and safe.


The information that will stay with me is how much the EPA actually does and tries to keep the people and environment safe on Earth. This relates to today because just the other week, Donald Trump signed an order to expire the EPA later this year, which may or may not greatly effect the environment.




Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Worker’s Movement


Who is Cesar Chavez?

Cesar Chavez is known as a prominent leader and labor organizer. He was a union leader and allied with organized labor. In 1962, he founded the National Farm Workers Association.

United Farmers Workers Movement – Why was it created, objective, was it successful

It was originally created to protest against grape growers in California, as growing these grapes was hard laborious work that created issues for many of the workers. The objective was for the grape growers to notice the union and create better conditions and less racism for workers, as Chavez was one. They were successful as they finally got “twenty-six Delano growers [to] formally signed contracts recognizing the United Farm Workers and bringing peace to the vineyards.


The information that will stay with me is that Cesar Chavez actually had to protest grapes and their growers because of the conditions and environment the workers were put in. That’s honestly a little ridiculous. It still applies today as many people work under harsh conditions and many have strikes in order to protest things such a these.


Describe the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement

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Founding of NOW

On June 30, 1966, NOW was founded in Washington, D.C. It was founded by “people attending the Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women.” Some of its original member are: Betty Friedan, Rev. Pauli Murray, and the first ever African American woman Episcopal priest.

Major actions and accomplishments  -Take Back the Night how have they contributed to the women’s movement

Take Back the Night has major accomplishments in that their events appear in 30 countries all over the world and over 600 campuses have held their events. They work to “end sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, sexual abuse and all other forms of sexual violence.” They have greatly contributed to the women’s movement by allowing others to become educated on these issues and create a safe community for those who have experienced such violence. They describe themselves as a “beacon of hope” for those who have gone through sexual trauma.

Feminine Mystique – what is it, importance

The book, written in 1963 by a woman named Betty Friedan, explored the idea of women finding personal freedom and fulfillment outside of traditional roles for women at the time, such as housewife duties. It is important as it helped move the women’s movement forward, with Friedan becoming known as a “pioneer of feminism” during this time period.

Roe v. Wade – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

The chief justice on this case was Harry Blackmun. The court concluded with a 7-2 decision that the punishment and banning of abortion was against Jane Roe’s constitutional right to privacy, therefore violating the First, Fourth, Ninth, and Fourteenth Amendments.. The court also stated that all abortions would be legal if they were performed within the first three months of the pregnancy.


The information that will stick with me is how much the Feminine Mystique actually helped to move along the women’s movement during the time period that it was first published. This also contributes to society today, as women still take great inspiration from Friedan’s book. In fact, I just saw it in the bookstore the other right in the front of the store, which just shows how much impact it still has on today’s society.


Compare and contrast the Student Non-violent coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides and changing composition.


What were the objectives, who were the organizers of the: NAACP, SNCC and SCLC?

The NAACP or National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was one of the earliest civil rights organizations. It was originally formed in order to combat the lynching happening at the time. Some original members and founders are: Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling, Dr. Henry Moscowitz, W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and Mary Church Terrell. Many others were apart of the NAACP, but these are just some of the main members at their first ever meeting in 1908. It grew to a national organization that fought for race equality, nonviolence, and desegregation during the Civil Rights Movement.

The SNCC or Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee ” formed to give younger blacks more of a voice in the civil rights movement.” It was known as a radical branch of the Civil Rights Movement. They participated in sit-ins and other nonviolent approaches to getting their message of a need for integration across. Main founders and organizers of the SNCC were Ella Baker, Diane Nash, Julian Bond, Bernard Lafayette, and Charles Sherrod.

The SCLC or Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s “main aim was to advance the cause of [the Civil Rights Movement] in America… in a non-violent manner.” It came mostly from the church, as it was a Christian group. Martin Luther King Jr. was the main organizer and founder of the SCLC, as he was a Baptist Minister when he first started the organization after Rosa Parks took her famous stand on the bus, leading MLK to start the SCLC after the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    1. SNCC – summer of 1964

In the summer of 1964, white college students, volunteers, black Mississipians, and other members of the SNCC held protests and other projects all summer in order to register African American voters in Mississippi. This was also known as the Mississippi Summer Project.

Freedom Rides & Sit- in – explain what each is, why were these methods chosen over others

    1. Montgomery Bus Boycott

The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a time period from December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956 in which African Americans refused to ride the bus in protest of the segregated seating. The boycott began four days after Rosa Parks, who on December 1st, refused to give up her seat to a white member on the bus. This started what was considered as “the first large-scale demonstration against segregation in the U.S.”

Changing composition – how many African Americans were elected officials (or leaders in their neighborhoods, cities, states) in the 1960’s

  1. University of California v. Bakke– Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

The chief justice on the case was Lewis Franklin Powell. The court decided in a 5-4 decision that a state can constitutionally consider race when deciding on who to admit to their school in terms of campus diversity, but only if considered along other factors as well; not just race.


The information that will stay with me is that schools can actually make a decision on whether or not to admit you to their school based on race, along with other factors. This applies today as they still do this and in my life, as I will soon be applying to college and some schools might take me into consideration in this manner.*


Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968;include the assassinations of MLK Jr, Robert Kennedy and the events surrounding the DNC.


MLK assassination – who killed him, why

In Memphis, Texas, on April 4, 1968, Matin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by the suspected James Earl Ray. He was shot in the neck by the sniper on the second floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel. Many think that Ray was paid to shoot and kill King, as he did not have a record of political hatred.

MLK assassination Riots – when, where, why, what happened, affects

During April of 1968, riots occurred in over 125 cities across the nation. National guards were often needed to stop the riots and the crowds due to their size and force. Many became violent and destroyed ans set fire to cities across the nation. Many resorted to Black Panther types of rioting, using violence to get their message across about their rage towards MLK’s assassination. They felt it was a violation and act against everything they and MLK had been striving towards.

Robert Kennedy Assassination – Who killed him, why, what role did Robert play politically at that time

Robert Kennedy was killed by Sirhan Sirhan, and was shot multiple times, less than a foot away. Sirhan did this as he believed that Robert Kennedy was the reason that Palestinians were oppressed in America. Robert Kennedy was, at the time, a Senator and said “by many to be the only person in American politics capable of uniting the people [in America].”

1968 Chicago Democratic National Convention (DNC) riots – causes, what happened, result

On August 28, 1968, riots occurred at the 1968 Chicago Democratic National Convention filled with Vietnam War protesters. This was due to the decision being made inside the convention: its stance on Vietnam. The Democratic Party was conflicted about their opinion on the matter. This event made the party weaker as it was an internal conflict, causing the party to lose the upcoming election to the Republicans.


The information that will stick with me is that there were so many riots during this time period due to the occurrence of all of these controversial events. This relates back to today as we still have riots occasionally and protests on certain subjects in politics.


Explain Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare.


What was the “Great Society” – Domestic  policies created and passed to make his “Great Society” possible?

The Great Society was a “blueprint” that was envisioned by Lyndon B. Johnson in order to end poverty, improve education, protect the environment/revitalize cities, and promote equality throughout America. Some of the domestic polices that Johnson passed to make the Great Society possible are: the Wilderness Protection Act, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the Voting Rights Act, Medicare, the Ominbus Housing Act, and the Immigration Act. All of these acts helped to make the Great Society a reality in America.

What is Medicare, how is it funded, who does it take care of?

Medicare is a federal health insurance programs that help to cover seniors 65 years or older, young people with disabilities, and other with permanent kidney failure. Medicare is funded through general revenue, payroll taxes, premiums, transfers from states, taxation of Social Security benefits, and interest. Medicare also covers things like hospital inpatient services, outpatient prescription drugs, hospital outpatient services, and home health, among other things.


The knowledge that will stick with me is how much medicare actually covers and how helpful it is to older people and others with diseases and disabilities. It also suprised me how many places Medicare gets it funding from. It relates to today’s society as Medicare is still used today and still helps a great amount of people with healthcare throughout their retirement.


Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation


Who shot him, why, where, what date. who became president when he died?

On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald allegedly shot at the President three times from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository Building. He was shot in a open-top convertible while on a parade route through downtown Dallas. He was pronounced dead at Dallas’ Parkland Hospital 30 minutes later. When President John F. Kennedy died, his Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson became the new, acting President.

What was Johnson’s viewpoint on Civil Rights?

Even though Lyndon B. Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, lifted racist immigration restrictions, and even tried bringing down the Klu Klux Klan, he was actually very racist. His relationships with “blacks were marred by his prejudice”, even during his Presidency. Segregationists even felt betrayed by him when he passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and when he started going to larger lengths to end racism and fight for civil rights, such as the making of the Great Society.

What Civil Rights legislation was Kennedy working on that never got passed?

Kennedy’s civil rights bill was left to Johnson when Kennedy died. It eventually turned into the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was passed mainly as a way to help honor President John F. Kennedy and his life as President.


The information that will stick with me and surprised me the most is that Lee Harvey Oswald was able to sneak a gun into what should have been a secure area in order to assassinate the President. I would have thought that there would be more precautions in the surrounding areas. This security issue still occurs today, as many worry that even with the maximum security on the President today, it is not enough to keep him safe in public situations.


Describe the Warren Court and the decision and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision

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What years was Earl Warren Chief Justice, what “type” of court did he have?

Earl Warren was the chief justice of the United States Supreme Court from the years 1953, when he was appointed by Dwight D. Eisenhower, to 1969. He led his court “in a series of liberal decisions that transformed the role of the U.S. Supreme Court.” His court was very liberal when he was nominated he stated that, “He represents the kind of political, economic, and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court”, making his Court one of a liberal attitude.

What was each case about, the decision and on what constitutional/legal ground?

  1. Brown v. Board of Education– This Supreme Court case was about the decision to overrule the Plessy v. Ferguson decision in order to desegregate the United States. The decision was unanimous stating that “separate educational facilities” were “inherently unequal” due to how the inequalities effected their educations and “deprived black students of equal protection under the law.” The Plessy decision stayed in consideration to railroad cars as the court stated that it “conformed to the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection.”
  2. Gideon v. Wainwright– When a judge refused to appoint counsel for Gideon during a state trial in Florida because he could not afford an attorney, Gideon took the issue to the Supreme Court. The judge was allowed to do this due to a previous case called Betts v. Brady where the court decided that “the refusal to appoint counsel for an indigent defendant charged with a felony in state court did not… violate the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.” In the Gideon v. Wainwright case, this was unanimously overruled.
  3. Reynolds v. Sims– When over 30 lawsuits were charged “against states claiming [their] legislative apportionment schemes to be unconstitutional”, the issue was brought to the Supreme Court. When some rural states had over representation in their state legal districts, the more urbanized areas became upset by this. The court ruled that all the legal districts must be equal in population (“one man, one vote”), as the previous method did, in fact, violate the “Constitution’s Equal Protection Clause.”
  4. Griswold v. Connecticut– This case entered the Supreme Court when Estelle Griswold and Dr. C. Lee Buxton were arrested and found guilty as accessories in providing illegal contraception for others. Griswold was the “executive director of Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut” and Buxton was a “doctor and professor at Yale Medical School.” They both stated that they thought that the law violated the Constitution, which was when the Supreme Court stepped in. The court ruled that ” a state’s ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy.”
  5. Miranda v. Arizona– When Ernesto Miranda was arrested and charged with robbery, kidnapping, and rape, he was not aware of his right to a lawyer or counsel. He was persecuted based solely on his alleged confession. In 1966, the Supreme court reviewed Miranda’s appeal and ruled in a 5-4 decision that on arrest, it is the police’s duty to warn against self-incrimination and tell them their right to an attorney. This decision was based off of the Fifth and Sixth Amendments.


The information that will stick with me is that we know are read our rights on arrest and that one can not be refused counsel in court, which used to not be the case. This is important to today as if these court cases did not turn out the way they did, one might still not be aware of their rights, leading to faulty and unfair court cases.



Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965


Civil Rights act of 1964 – which president signed this, what were the provisions of the act, how did this help Civil Rights (discrimination based on race and even gender)  from this point forward

The law was signed in by President Lyndon B. Johnson. This act ended segregation in public areas based on race, color, sex, , religion, and national origin. This law is “considered one of the crowning legislative achievements of the civil rights movement.” This act helped the Civil Rights Movement based on race and gender by making it the law that one could not discrimination on these terms in public areas. It helped to move the movement forward in these aspects.

24th Amendment – what did the amendment stipulate, how did this help those with limited voting rights

The 24th Amendment was signed in 1962 and got rid of the poll tax during federal elections. This allowed for those who did not have as much money to still be able to vote in federal elections. It got rid of some of the limited voting rights for those who were allowed to vote in those federal elections. It brought more voters to the polls due to less of an expense when voting. Although this helped white voters, it did not help African Americans or protect black voting rights, as this Amendment inadvertently affected African American voters.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 – What were the provisions of the law, what ways did States try to go around this

President Lyndon B. Johnson signed this act on August 6, 1965 in order to “overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment”. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 gave African Americans the right to vote in the United States of America. It helped with the limited voting rights as it got rid of discrimination when voting, as it allowed African Americans to vote. Some African Americans were physically assaulted when trying to register to vote; some states would say that African Americans filled out the registration wrong in order to keep them from voting in the polls.


The information that I will take away from this standard is that Lyndon B. Johnson was making such active steps in order to make equal rights for African Americans a reality. He also made great advances in the rights of sex, religion, and national origin. It relates to today’s society in that discrimination in public areas was lessened back then, as was it during voting. This created Civil Rights advancement, allowing for today’s society to be more advanced in this society.