SSUSH22d.

Describe the Significance of Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and his I Have A Dream speech.

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When was it written, what was the letter about, why did he write it, to who, what is his argument- analysis of its importance to the Civil Rights Movement

During the beginning of April 1963 while King was in jail after he was arrested at a protest, he began to write a 7,000 word letter depicting his opinion about “the nation’s religious leaders and more moderate-minded white Americans”. He criticized them for watching and doing nothing as him and other African Americans risked their lives to promote change in America. King stated in the letter that “justice too long delayed is justice denied”, illustrating his argument and feelings on the lack of social and racial equality in the United States. It is important to the Civil Rights Movement as he questioned those opposing desegregation, therefore bringing inspiration to citizens across America. This helped promote equality in America and gain more people in the movement.

March on Washington- who organized it, what was the objective- Was it achieved?

The March on Washington occurred on August 28, 1963. The march was organized by A. Philip Randolph and his associate Bayard Rustin. It was known as the March for Jobs and Freedom, and more than 200,000 black and white Americans showed up to the march to protest the stalling of the Civil Rights Act in Congress. The objective was to bring awareness to the importance of racial equality and show the strength of communities, both black and white, and how they could put their differences aside to join together in “a harmonious event”. The March on Washington was most definitely a success and their objectives were achieved through an illustration of togetherness and peaceful assembly.

I Have A Dream Speech- what was his message, who was it to- analysis of its importance to the Civil Rights Movement

MLK’s message in his “I Have a Dream” speech was too shed light on how the “Negro is still not free.” This illustrated how Martin Luther King, Jr. wanted to say that African Americans need voting rights and equal rights in all aspects of American life. He was calling out all of the people who were against desegregation and equal rights for African Americans, stating how the United States would benefit from integration. MLK’s speech was important to the Civil Rights Movement as it created a whirlwind of opinions equating “the civil rights movement with the highest and noblest ideals of the American tradition, allowing many to see for the first time the importance and urgency of racial equality.”

Opposite of Non-Violent

  • Malcolm X- who was he, how did he appeal to African Americans, how did he think African Americans should go about securing their rights?

Malcolm X was an African American religious leader and nationalist. He appealed to African Americans as he stated that they should “defend themselves against white aggression ‘by any means necessary.'” He encouraged young African Americans to defend their rights and try to find confidence inside of segregated America. He thought they should go about securing their rights through violence and any necessary means of action.

Black Panthers- objectives, beliefs, actions

The Black Panthers Party’s objective was to secure equal rights for all races. Their main belief was a “belief of international working class unity across the spectrum of color and gender”, which meant that they not only worked with other African American groups, but they also worked with white revolutionary groups. They created a capitalist economic system through influence by Marxism. They protested segregation using militaristic means by going in fully armed, protesting weapons laws and racism.

Reflection

The knowledge that will stick with me from this standard is that even when MLK ws in jail, he was able to write a letter and protest segregation whilst he was in jail. The fact that he could still fight for what he believed in all while being punished for righting for what he believed in is inspiring. THis relates to the world today because MLK made such great steps in the fight for equality and at the same time, inspired so many others to continure his fight. Without all of his efforts, many of the rights African Americans have today may not exist.

http://www.history.com/news/kings-letter-from-birmingham-jail-50-years-later

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/march-on-washington

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/king-speaks-to-march-on-washington

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/malcolm-x

https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/black-panthers/

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SSUSH22c.

Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision.

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Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground?

Earl Warren was  the Chief Justice during the Brown v. Board of Education supreme court case. The decision was unanimous stating that “separate educational facilities” were “inherently unequal” due to how the inequalities effected their educations and “deprived black students of equal protection under the law.”

Brown II

Brown II was a court decision issued in 1955 that stated that the Brown v. Board of Education decision in which desegregation would occur could proceed with “all deliberate speed”. This meant that the decision could be put off and resisted by schools and institutions if they did not want to desegregate right away. Dislike of Brown II was shown by supporters and those against the Brown v. Board of Education decision.

Little Rock Nine- year, who, what happened and result

The Little Rock Nine was a group of black students who, in September of 1957, were integrated into all-white schools. This was as a result of the Brown v. Board of Education case in order to test how the desegregation would play out in the white schools. Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls were the recuited Little Rock Nine. The students entered the school greeted by hostility from students and faculty. Integration continued throughout the school year.

University of Alabama- year, who, what happened and result

On June 11, 1963, two black students enrolled at the University of Alabama. Their names were Vivian Malone and James A. Hood. This was done because Alabama governor, Governor Wallace, did not want to desegregate schools, but President Kennedy forced federal pressure on him, as he eventually allowed the students to enroll. Later that year, Wallace once again tried to stop desegregation of a high school, but President Kennedy once again stepped in to prevent him from doing so.

Reflection

The information that will stick with me is that when the Little Rock Nine and University of Alabama students enrolled, they were met with anger and negativity. They were yelled at and spit on, which is so immoral, which is why these facts with stick with me. This effects the world today because without the bravery of these African American students that enrolled in previously all-white schools, the equality movement for African Americans could have been set back in educational aspects for who knows how long.

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka

http://www.vahistorical.org/collections-and-resources/virginia-history-explorer/civil-rights-movement-virginia/brown-i-and-brown

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/university-of-alabama-desegregated

SSUSH22b.

ID Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball.

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What year and team did this begin?

Jackie Robinson was recruited to the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1945 by general manager Branch Rickey. On April 15, 1947, Robinson played his first game with the Brooklyn Dodgers against the Boston Braves. This made him the first African American in the major leagues.

Reaction of teammates, other MLB teams; fans

When Jackie Robinson first joined and played for the Dodgers, he was met with unsupportive and racist teammates, fans, along with other teams. Most people were not pleased about the decision to bring Robinson onto a professional baseball team, but Robinson was not effected by their reactions.

When did other black players make it into the major leagues?

Larry Doby became the first African American to play for the Cleveland Indians on July 5, 1947- only a few months after Jackie Robinson. Other African American players began to follow them including: Hank Thompson (July 17, 1947), Willard “Home Run” Brown (July 19, 1947), Monte Irvin (July 8, 1949), etc.

Reflection

The new knowledge that will stick me is that Jackie Robinson was met with such racism and opposition when he became apart of the MLB because it seems like such a wrong viewpoint in today’s society. This effected today’s society as it most likely opened people’s views/opinion on the subject and created a more excepting society for African Americans in the long run.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jackie-robinson-breaks-major-league-color-barrier

http://www.sports-management-degrees.com/10-first-african-american-players-in-major-league-baseball/

SSUSH22a.

Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the US military and the federal government.9219629

What was Executive order 9981?

On July 26, 1948, President Truman issued an executive order stating “that there should be equality of treatment and opportunities for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.” This was a response due to the struggle African Americans faced when trying to serve their country, even though Truman was not an evident support of integration. They fought during the American Revolution along white people, but the struggle continued thereafter. The act is often stated as “the pinnacle of the Truman civil rights program and the climax of the struggle for racial equality in the armed forces.” African American unites often acted with more bravery and action than there white counterparts, so it would make sense that Truman would want to fully integrate them into America’s armed forces, as they could be a vital part of battles.

How did the EO impact the military and federal government?

At first, the military resisted the integration, but were forced to use this order in recruitment and training. This order created more power in the military as they had more men to fight in the wars, creating a stronger military and fighting front for the United States. Not only did this law desegregate the military, it also helped create a sense of politics as race became more of an important topics in presidential debates and elections. It also created a an “advisory committee [within the federal government] to examine the rules, practices, and procedures of the armed services and recommend ways to make desegregation a reality.”

Reflection

The fact that will stick with me is that someone who was raised in a Confederate household and was on the fence about race relations can create a law to help integrate African Americans into the armed forces because he knows it is the right thing to do. Even if it was just to make the military more powerful, he still created an executive order that helped to advance African American rights in a great direction. This executive order impacts the world today because without it, African American rights in the military would have probably been set back many years. Who knows what their rights would look like, or even what politics would look like now if this order was not set in 1948.

https://armyhistory.org/executive-order-9981-integration-of-the-armed-forces/ 

https://www.trumanlibrary.org/anniversaries/desegblurb.htm